Beyoğlu is a district of Istanbul, Turkey, located on the European side of the city and separated from the old town (historic peninsula of Constantinople) by the Golden Horn. In the Middle Ages, it was known as Pera ("the other side "), a name that was used until the early twentieth century, with the founding of the Republic. It has a population of 245,064 inhabitants (2008). The district encompasses other neighborhoods located north of the Golden Horn, including Galata, Karaköy, Cihangir, Şişhane, Tepebaşı, Tarlabaşı, Dolapdere and Kasımpaşa. Beyoğlu is the artistic, leisure and nightlife capital of Istanbul.