Baeza is one of the most interesting towns to be found in the region of of Jaén. Cultural and artistically speaking, of course. Unfortunately, on my trip travelling around Andalusia, I did not have much time to stop and spend much time there, since I practically came just for dinner, to sleep and I left the next morning with the first rays of sun. But one thing is clear to me that I have wanted to go back and enjoy the city. Its historic center is tremendous, with many properties from which you get goose bumps. Throughout the city there exudes a special historical flavor and it is easy to realize that you are in a city that had a glorious past.
Baeza Cathedral, also known as the Nativity of Our Lady, is built-as are most of the cathedrals of southern Spain, on an ancient mosque, which itself was originally constructed on a former pagan temple. The style is from the XVI century Renaissance period. It is not very big but it is pretty and the entrance (unlike others) is free. You can also arrange tours.
This beautiful fountain is found in the center of the square of the same name, between the Seminary of San Felipe Neri and the Cathedral. It was designed by the architect from Baeza Ginés Martínez in 1564, who was also responsible for implementing the project of supplying water to the city. It contains a triple triumphal arch crowned by a large triangular pediment supported by Atlanteans.
St. Mary's Square is the heart of historic Baeza, in the area that has been declared a World Heritage Site. An amazing plaza, surrounded to the south by the Cathedral of Baeza, to the east by the Palace of Cabrera, and to the south by the ancient Seminary/current International University Antonio Machado.
Situated at one end of the Pópulo Sqaure or Square of the lions, next to the Case of Populo (currently housing the Tourist Office) you can find the Arch of Villalar, which was erected in order to commemorate the Battle of Villalar (Valladolid) in the year 1521 and in which troops defeated the Communards Carlos I of Castile.
Jabalquinto Palace is a 15th century palace, and the main facade really stands out. It's attributed to Juan Guas, and it's one of the Gothic Elizabethan jewels with its pretty windows and its walls that are decorated with diamond tips. It's a real gem. Today it houses the European University of Andalusia.
The Andalucía International University is located in Baeza. It is an interesting visit because you can discover that Antonio Machado was one of the teachers of this university, he taught French. In the auditorium of the University there is a replica of a classroom at the time along with an exhibition of original documents (Machado application to the rector to teach there, payrolls, parts support, collaborations literary magazines.).
In the Pópulo Square, which is also called the Lions due to the Roman fountain there is there, we found the Old Butcher S. XVI, the House of the People (Pópulo) in a plateresco style that housed the Civil Courts and Public and which is now the Office of Tourism, and the Arc de Villalar.
Antonio Machado lived in Baeza since 1912. After the death of his wife he decided to leave Soria and return to his native Andalusia, where he taught French at the University of Baeza from 1912-1919. The classroom where he taught has been preserved with desks from that time period, a teacher's desk with a brazier underneath on the rack. It's a lot different from classrooms nowadays!
In the Benavides Cardinal Street, opposite the Town Hall, there is the house in which Antonio Machado lived during his stay in Baeza. In 1912 his wife Eleanor fell ill with tuberculosis and she ended up dying, this event plunged Antonio into a deep depression and he moved from Soria to Baeza, where he lived until 1919 dedicated to the teaching of French grammar
The establishment of this university came about because of a certain Dr. Rodrigo Lopez, who was a native of Baeza, a chaplain and family member of Pope Paul III who won the bull founding in 1538, although work on the facade and the Chapel were completed in the 17th Century. This building is a good example of baezano architecture, repeating the typical structure of the Renaissance palaces. The main entrance is an arch decorated with acanthus leaves. On the key there is a medallion which is carved into it, which dates back to the 17th Century, representing the Holy Trinity. The patio is a double arcade with arches decorated with mirrors or Shields of Fernández de Córdoba employer. The university maintained its function until the year 1824. In the courtyard you can visit the lecture hall and Machado classroom.